8 The gain medium is a material with properties that allow it to amplify light by way of stimulated emission. Light of a specific wavelength that passes through the gain medium is amplified (increases in power). For the gain medium to amplify light, it needs to be supplied with energy in a process called pumping. The energy is typically supplied as an electric current or as light at a different wavelength. Pump light may be provided by a flash lamp or by another laser. The most common type of laser uses feedback from an optical cavity —a pair of mirrors on either end of the gain medium. Light bounces back and forth between the mirrors, passing through the gain medium and being amplified each time. Typically one of the two mirrors, the output coupler, is partially transparent.
However, all such devices are classified as "lasers" based on their method of producing light,. Lasers are employed in applications where light of the required spatial or temporal coherence could not be produced using simpler technologies. Terminology laser beams in fog, reflected on a car windshield The word laser started as an acronym for "light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation". In this usage, the term "light" includes electromagnetic radiation of any frequency, not only visible light, hence the terms infrared laser, ultraviolet laser, x-ray laser, gamma-ray laser, and. Because the microwave predecessor of the laser, the maser, was developed first, devices of this sort operating at microwave and radio frequencies are referred to as "masers" rather than artrose "microwave lasers" or "radio lasers". In the early technical literature, especially at Bell Telephone laboratories, the laser was called an optical maser ; this term is now obsolete. 5 A laser that produces light by itself is technically an optical oscillator rather than an optical amplifier as suggested by the acronym. It has been humorously noted that the acronym loser, for "light oscillation by stimulated emission of radiation would have been more correct. 6 With the widespread use of the original acronym as a common noun, optical amplifiers have come to be referred to as "laser amplifiers notwithstanding the apparent redundancy in that designation. The back-formed verb to lase is frequently used in the field, meaning "to produce laser light 7 especially in reference to the gain medium of a laser; when a laser is operating it is said to be "lasing." Further use of the words laser and. Design Components of a typical laser: gain medium Laser pumping energy high reflector Output coupler Laser beam Animation explaining stimulated emission and the laser principle main article: Laser construction A laser consists of a gain medium, a mechanism to energize it, and something to provide.
, which is diffraction-limited. Laser beams can be focused to very tiny spots, achieving a very high irradiance, or they can have very low divergence in order to concentrate their power at a great distance. Temporal (or longitudinal) coherence implies a polarized wave at a single frequency whose phase is correlated over a relatively great distance (the coherence length ) along the beam. 4 A beam produced by a thermal or other incoherent light source has an instantaneous amplitude and phase that vary randomly with respect to time and position, thus having a short coherence length. Lasers are characterized according to their wavelength in a vacuum. Most "single wavelength" lasers actually produce radiation in several modes having slightly differing frequencies (wavelengths often not in a single polarization. Although temporal coherence implies monochromaticity, there are lasers that emit a broad spectrum of light or emit different wavelengths of light simultaneously. There are some lasers that are not single spatial mode and consequently have light beams that diverge more than is required by the diffraction limit.
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Maiman at, hughes Research Laboratories, based on theoretical work. Charles Hard Townes and, arthur leonard Schawlow. A laser differs from other sources of light in that it emits light coherently, spatially and temporally. Spatial coherence allows a laser to be focused to a tight spot, enabling applications such as laser cutting and lithography. Spatial coherence also allows a laser beam to stay narrow over great distances ( collimation enabling applications such as laser pointers. Lasers can also have high temporal coherence, which allows them to emit light with a very narrow spectrum,. E., they can emit a single color of light. Temporal coherence can be used to produce pulses of light as short as a femtosecond. Among their many applications, lasers are used in optical disk drives, laser printers, and barcode scanners ; dna sequencing instruments, fiber-optic and free-space optical communication ; laser surgery and skin treatments; cutting and welding materials; military and law enforcement devices for marking targets and measuring.
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"Laser light" redirects here. For laser light show, see laser lighting display. For the song, see, laserlight (song). For other uses, see, laser (disambiguation). A laser beam used for welding. Red (660 635 nm green (532 520 nm) and blue-violet (445 405 nm) lasers. A laser is a device that emits light through ervaringen a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. The term "laser" originated as an acronym for " light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation ". 1 2, the first laser was built in 1960.